In the early 90’s, the Turing test, which allows determining the possibility of thinking by computers, was developed. It consists in the following. A person talks to both the person and the computer. The goal is to find out who his interlocutor is — a person or a machine. This test is carried out in our days and many conversational programs have coped with it successfully.
A chatbot is an artificial intelligence (AI) program that simulates interactive human conversation by using key pre-calculated user phrases and auditory or text-based signals. Chatbots are frequently used for basic customer service and marketing systems that frequent social networking hubs and instant messaging (IM) clients. They are also often included in operating systems as intelligent virtual assistants.
On the other hand, early adoption can be somewhat of a curse. In 2011, many companies and individuals, myself included, invested a lot of time and money into Google+, dubbed to be bigger than Facebook at the time. They acquired over 10 million new users within the first two weeks of launch and things were looking positive. Many companies doubled-down on growing a community within the platform, hopeful of using it as a new and growing acquisition channel, but things didn't exactly pan out that way.
We need to know the specific intents in the request (we will call them as entities), for eg — the answers to the questions like when?, where?, how many? etc., that correspond to extracting the information from the user request about datetime, location, number respectively. Here datetime, location, number are the entities. Quoting the above weather example, the entities can be ‘datetime’ (user provided information) and location(note — location need not be an explicit input provided by the user and will be determined from the user location as default, if nothing is specified).
For as long as I can remember, email has been a fundamentally important channel for a large majority of businesses. The ability to market products directly through a channel that scales up to an incredibly high ceiling is very attractive. The only problem is that it's costing more and more money to acquire email addresses from potential customers, and the engagement from email is getting worse and worse.
However, as irresistible as this story was to news outlets, Facebook’s engineers didn’t pull the plug on the experiment out of fear the bots were somehow secretly colluding to usurp their meatbag overlords and usher in a new age of machine dominance. They ended the experiment due to the fact that, once the bots had deviated far enough from acceptable English language parameters, the data gleaned by the conversational aspects of the test was of limited value.
Die Herausforderung bei der Programmierung eines Chatbots liegt in der sinnvollen Zusammenstellung der Erkennungen. Präzise Erkennungen für spezielle Fragen werden dabei ergänzt durch globale Erkennungen, die sich nur auf ein Wort beziehen und als Fallback dienen können (der Bot erkennt grob das Thema, aber nicht die genaue Frage). Manche Chatbot-Programme unterstützen die Entwicklung dabei über Priorisierungsränge, die einzelnen Antworten zuzuordnen sind. Zur Programmierung eines Chatbots werden meist Entwicklungsumgebungen verwendet, die es erlauben, Fragen zu kategorisieren, Antworten zu priorisieren und Erkennungen zu verwalten. Dabei lassen manche auch die Gestaltung eines Gesprächskontexts zu, der auf Erkennungen und möglichen Folgeerkennungen basiert („Möchten Sie mehr darüber erfahren?“). Ist die Wissensbasis aufgebaut, wird der Bot in möglichst vielen Trainingsgesprächen mit Nutzern der Zielgruppe optimiert. Fehlerhafte Erkennungen, Erkennungslücken und fehlende Antworten lassen sich so erkennen. Meist bietet die Entwicklungsumgebung Analysewerkzeuge, um die Gesprächsprotokolle effizient auswerten zu können. Ein guter Chatbot erreicht auf diese Weise eine mittlere Erkennungsrate von mehr als 70 % der Fragen. Er wird damit von den meisten Nutzern als unterhaltsamer Gegenpart akzeptiert.
Chatbots can have varying levels of complexity and can be stateless or stateful. A stateless chatbot approaches each conversation as if it was interacting with a new user. In contrast, a stateful chatbot is able to review past interactions and frame new responses in context. Adding a chatbot to a company's service or sales department requires low or no coding; today, a number of chatbot service providers that allow developers to build conversational user interfaces for third-party business applications.
Several studies accomplished by analytics agencies such as Juniper or Gartner  report significant reduction of cost of customer services, leading to billions of dollars of economy in the next 10 years. Gartner predicts an integration by 2020 of chatbots in at least 85% of all client's applications to customer service. Juniper's study announces an impressive amount of $8 billion retained annually by 2022 due to the use of chatbots.
Once you’ve determined these factors, you can develop the front-end web app or microservice. You might decide to integrate a chatbot into a customer support website where a customer clicks on an icon that immediately triggers a chatbot conversation. You could also integrate a chatbot into another communication channel, whether it’s Slack or Facebook Messenger. Building a “Slackbot,” for example, gives your users another way to get help or find information within a familiar interface.
2010 SIRI: Though Siri is considered colloquially to be a virtual assistant rather than a conversational bot, it was built off the same technologies and paved the way for all later AI bots and PAs. Siri is an intelligent personal assistant with a natural language UI to respond to questions and perform web-based service requests. Siri was part of apples IOS.
If AI struggles with fourth-grade science question answering, should AI be expected to hold an adult-level, open-ended chit-chat about politics, entertainment, and weather? It is thus encouraging to see that Microsoft’s Satya Nadella did not give up on Tay after its debacle, and Amazon’s Jeff Bezos is sponsoring an Alexa social chatbot competition. I love this below quote from Jeff:
An ecommerce website’s user interface is an important part of the overall application. It has amazing product pictures for shoppers to look at. It has an advanced search tool to help the shopper locate products. It has lovely buttons users can click to add products to the shopping cart. And it has forms for entering payment information or an address.
Chatbots are predicted to be progressively present in businesses and will automate tasks that do not require skill-based talents. Companies are getting smarter with touchpoints and customer service now comes in the form of instant messenger, as well as phone calls. IBM recently predicted that 85% of customer service enquiries will be handled by AI as early as 2020. The call centre workers may be particularly at risk from AI.
Lack contextual awareness. Not everyone has all of the data that Google has – but chatbots today lack the awareness that we expect them to have. We assume that chatbot technology will know our IP address, browsing history, previous purchases, but that is just not the case today. I would argue that many chatbots even lack basic connection to other data silos to improve their ability to answer questions.
ETL. The bot relies on information and knowledge extracted from the raw data by an ETL process in the backend. This data might be structured (SQL database), semi-structured (CRM system, FAQs), or unstructured (Word documents, PDFs, web logs). An ETL subsystem extracts the data on a fixed schedule. The content is transformed and enriched, then loaded into an intermediary data store, such as Cosmos DB or Azure Blob Storage.
Want to initiate the conversation with customers from your Facebook page rather than wait for them to come to you? Facebook lets you do that. You can load email addresses and phone numbers from your subscriber list into custom Facebook audiences. To discourage spam, Facebook charges a fee to use this service. You can then send a message directly from your page to the audience you created.
Context: When a NLU algorithm analyzes a sentence, it does not have the history of the user conversation. It means that if it receives the answer to a question it has just asked, it will not remember the question. For differentiating the phases during the chat conversation, it’s state should be stored. It can either be flags like “Ordering Pizza” or parameters like “Restaurant: ‘Dominos’”. With context, you can easily relate intents with no need to know what was the previous question.
Conversational bots “live” online and give customers a familiar experience, similar to engaging an employee or a live agent, and they can offer that experience in higher volumes. Conversational bots offer scaling—or the capability to perform equally well under an expanding workload—in ways that human can’t, assisting businesses to reach customers in a way they couldn’t before. For one, businesses have created 24/7/365 online presence through conversational bots.